Demand for rural employment fluctuates dramatically with seasonality in Bangladesh and in low season unskilled rural laborers struggle to find employment, which undermines the food security of their households, increases their vulnerability to other shocks (health, covariate shocks) and impacts their health and human capital accumulation. The baseline survey was carried out in November 2010 in a sample of 3,000 households and the midline survey was conducted in November 2011 in a sample of 1,000 households randomly selected from the baseline sample. The end-line panel survey of original 3,000 households was implemented in November 2012. It was conducted in 7 divisions.
Description of project: The World Bank is supporting the EGPP through a results-based investment loan to the Government of Bangladesh. Results-based lending instruments make disbursements toward the project they fund conditional on meeting a set of development results, which aim at ensuring accountability and transparency in the use of loaned funds, and improving the effectiveness of the investment. The World Bank is particularly keen on seeing improvements in several focus areas, including rigorous targeting and improved capacity for monitoring and evaluation of EGPP’s implementation and impact.
The EGPP provides short-term employment during the lean season over two cycles that add up to 80 days in a year. Wages are generally set below the prevailing market wage for unskilled workers and this contributes to a self-selection of the poorest households into the program. The program thus provides an alternative source of income to individuals who would otherwise remain unemployed while also improving community infrastructure.
The main objective of this project was to collect, via face-to-face interviews, household level data in all seven divisions of Bangladesh for an impact evaluation of the EGPP. The evaluation consisted of three survey rounds conducted at one year intervals.
The data from each round of surveys was used to examine program targeting and the determinants of program participation as well as gather participant and non-participant views about the program, including the payment delivery system. The survey data will also be used to evaluate the impact of the program on net household incomes (measured relative to the household’s prior year income or relative to otherwise similar non-participant households), consumption, and responses to lean season vulnerability, including the use of coping strategies such as borrowing, migration, or reductions in the number and quality of meals eaten per day. The survey data will also be used to examine changes in household assets, especially in relation to possible distress sales, and look for impacts of the program on human capital through the channels of children’s school enrollment and household health spending.
Tasks carried out by Mitra and Associates
Methodology (Sample & tools): In order to identify factors affecting participation in EGPP, the survey covered both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. In the third round, Mitra surveyed the panel of 3,000 households that were interviewed during the baseline round. Mitra was responsible for tracking the panel households and households members, who split off from their original households (e.g. if a household member who previously lived with his/her parents forming a separate household), to their new locations if these location are within the same upazila.
Sampling and sample management
Equipment and logistics
Client reference: The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N. W. Washington, DC 20433, Phone: 202-473-1118, E-mail: email@example.com, Web: www.worldbank.org. The Authorized Representative: Dr. Iffath Sharif, Senior Economist, Social Protection Unit, The World Bank, E-32 Agargaon, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Tel: (880-2) 8159001-28, x4314, Fax: (880-2) 8159029-30